Glossary Of Automotive Terms or Terminology
Do you want to know what the terms SOHC & DOHC mean? What is the meaning of the terms CRDi, DI, IDI ESP, EBD, and EMS? Here is the A to Z of the complete glossary of Automotive Terms and Automotive Terminology.
Glossary Of Automotive Terms or Terminology
2 Stroke Diesel Engine – A 2-Stroke Diesel engine works on the principle of 2 strike diesel cycle.
2 Stroke Petrol Engine – A 2-Stroke Petrol engine works on the principle of 2 stroke otto cycle.
4 Valve Technology – 4 Valve Technology uses 2 inlet and 2 exhaust valves for better combustion and more power.
Glossary Of Automotive Terms or Terminology A to H
ABS – ABS stands for Anti-Lock Braking System
Active Blind Spot Assist – This technology keeps a close eye on the blind spots formed in the vicinity of the vehicle and thus, improves safety.
Active Headrest – This technology protects the occupants mainly from neck injuries.
Adventure Tourer – A motorcycle type specially designed for adventure tours/off-roading.
Agility Control – This technology adjusts its damping characteristics according to the road conditions.
Aerodynamic Drag – Aerodynamic Drag is a force which the oncoming air applies on a moving body.
Air conditioner (Car AC) – It helps to maintain pre-set temperature of the cabin air in a vehicle.
Air-cooled – A type of engine cooling system.
Air Dam – It controls the drag and provide stability to the vehicle.
Air Fuel Ratio – The ratio of fuel to air in the engine.
Active Ride Control – Active Ride Control is a convenience-enhancing feature. This feature aims to improve the ride quality of the vehicle thereby improving the comfort level of the passengers.
Active Suspension – This system works on either hydraulically actuated or an electromagnetic recuperative mechanism. With the help of an onboard computer, the system detects the vehicle body movement thru’ many sensors installed on the vehicle body.
Adaptive Cruise Control – It is an advanced cruise control option which most luxury cars employ. It measures the distance to the vehicle ahead and also controls the speed while approaching the other vehicle.
Adaptive Headlamps – Adaptive headlamps are those headlamps which are capable of turning their beam along the curvature of road & thereby, improving the visibility at night and increasing the road safety.
Adaptive Suspension – This system actively controls the vertical movement of the wheels corresponding to the vehicle chassis (vehicle’s body) thru’ a computer-controlled system is known as the Active Suspension or Adaptive Suspension. It offers a more refined and smooth riding experience.
AHO – Automatic Headlamp On (AHO) is a functionality that enhancess the safety of two-wheelers.
Alloy Wheels – These wheel rims are made of Aluminium and/or Magnesium alloys. Hence, some people also term them as ‘Mag Wheels’.
Android Auto – Android Auto is a platform or a system that allows your smartphone to be connected to your vehicle.
Anti-theft alarm – An ‘Anti-theft alarm system’ or Car Alarm is a type of device or method which prevents unauthorized access to a motorcycle or car.
Anti-pitch Technology – Anti-pinch technology is a safety system which modern vehicles employ in the power windows. This technology prevents the accidental winding up of the power window.
Active Trace Control – Active Trace Control as a driver assistance system. This system aids driving on acute or sharp curves and ensures that vehicle traverses its path perfectly.
Audi Nomenclature – Naming system of Audi cars.
Auto Pilot – This is the most astonishing feature in every car of Tesla. With Tesla Autopilot, the car is almost autonomous.
Battery – The battery supplies the current to the other electrical devices for all the time. Besides, it acts as a secondary source of electric current when the vehicle is not operating or the generator/alternator speed is not sufficient to meet the requirements.
B Pillar – It is the second pillar of the vehicle starting from the bonnet side.
Blue Core – Blue Core Technology is a newer generation engine technology developed by the motorcycle maker Yamaha. According to Yamaha’s internal tests, it delivers 14% more mileage as against earlier carburretor version.
Brake Assist – Brake Assist is an active vehicle safety system that helps the driver during incidents involving emergency braking.
Bike Average – It is the number of kilometers per liter or gallon worth of fuel.
Bi-Xenon – Bi xenon headlamp is a modern type of headlamp. Some manufacturers simply term it as the xenon headlamp.
Body Nomenclature – Naming system of the vehicle or car body.
Bore Stroke Ratio – Bore-Stroke Ratio is the ratio between the dimensions of the engine cylinder bore diameter to its piston stroke-length. The cylinder bore diameter divided by the stroke-length gives the Bore-to-Stroke ratio.
BMW Nomenclature – Naming system of BMW cars.
Car Alarm – A Car Alarm is a type of device or method which prevents unauthorized access to a motorcycle or car.
Car Mileage – It is the number of kilometers per liter or gallon worth of fuel.
Car Pillars – The body of an automobile is made of a structure that is just same as that of a house. It has similar components which include the roof, the pillars, and the floor. The car pillar in the vehicle stands in near vertical position which supports the vehicle’s roof.
Camber Angle – It is the angle which the wheels of a vehicle make with the vertical axis as seen from the front of the vehicle.
Catalytic Converter – The catalytic converter or ‘Cat-Con’ is a mechanical device. The main purpose of a catalytic converter is to reduce exhaust emissions.
CDI – CDI stands for Capacitor Discharge Ignition. The CDI unit consists of a microcomputer which precisely controls the timing of the spark.
CNG – CNG stands for Compressed Natural Gas. It is an alternative fuel to Petrol, Diesel & LPG. However, it is safer to use, cleaner to burn, and produces less harmful by-products as compared to petrol, diesel & LPG. It is lighter than air.
Clutch – The meaning of clutch is to hold on to or grab or grip something. The automotive clutch is a device which engages and disengages the drive between two moving mechanisms or assemblies such as a gear box.
CPA – The term CPA stands for Collision Prevention Assist which Mercedes Benz offers in its cars.
Collapsible Steering Column – The collapsible steering column is a type of advanced steering column. It is a part of the passive safety system in cars. Most passenger vehicles commonly employ the collapsible version instead of the regular steering column.
Compression Ratio – Compression Ratio is one of the fundamental specifications of an Internal Combustion engine. It is the ratio is the volume above the piston when it is at the bottom-most position (BDC) to the volume above the piston when it is at the top-most position (TDC).
Concept Car – The Concept Car is one of the most important design stages of designing and developing the new cars. It is the fundamental idea or the very basic structure of the car when it still sits on the drawing board.
Coupe – The car designers use the term Coupe to refer to the two-doored vehicles having closed body i.e. non-retractable roof. In general term, these cars are nothing but the sedans having only two doors for passenger entry.
Crosswind Assist – Mercedes Benz developed a driver assistance system which is the Crosswind Assist. It avoids the loss of control over the vehicle and resulting drifting because of the sudden gust of wind.
Cruise Control – The Cruise Control is a system that is capable of automatically maintaining the desired speed (i.e. speed set by the driver) of the vehicle without the need to press the accelerator pedal.
CRDI – Most modern engine’s fuel systems use an advanced technology known as CRDi or Common Rail Direct Injection. Both petrol end diesel engines use a common ‘fuel-rail’ which supplies the fuel to injectors. However, in diesel engines, manufacturers refer to this technology as CRDi whereas Petrol engines term it as Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) or Fuel Stratified Injection (FSI).
Cylinder Block – An automotive engine mainly consists of three stationary parts which are cylinder head, cylinder block, and crankcase. They provide support and serve as an enclosed unit for other moving parts. Modern engines consist of cylinder block and crankcase as a single unit which provides rigidity.
Cylinder Head – Automotive manufacturers design the engine to perform according to its application. Similarly, the cylinder heads are also designed to achieve certain performance parameters. The cylinder head is one of the most important and complex designs in the engine.
DCT – DCT stands for Dual Clutch Transmission which is a type of automatic transmission. It consists of two clutches (dual), instead of one, which operate independently of each other. Just like any other automatic transmission system, it also doesn’t have a clutch pedal.
DDDS – Long hours of monotonous driving on motorways or expressways is tiring. It results in fatigue and also causes the loss of concentration to the driver. Many studies have been carried out all over the world on this issue. They conclude that the driver’s loss of concentration is the main cause of almost 25% of all the road-accidents.
Defogger – It is a device that removes the condensed water droplets or ice from the main windscreen, side windows and rear windscreen of a vehicle. Its main function is to clear the windscreen of condensed water thereby improving visibility. This device is also known as ‘defroster’ or ‘demister’. Defoggers are typically used during the rainy season.
DI – Firstly, Diesel Direct Injection (DI) is a basic type of fuel injection system which many earlier generation diesel engines used. The simple DI diesel engines inject the fuel into the combustion chamber above the piston directly.
Disc Brake – Disc brake got its name from the circular-shaped plate or disc or rotor; onto which the disc brake parts are mounted. A conventional Disc Brake system consists of a brake disc, two friction pads, and brake caliper. In the Disc brake system; the friction pads apply grip on the external surface of the disc to perform braking.
Diesel Engine – The four strokes of the diesel cycle are similar to that of a petrol engine. However, the ‘Diesel Cycle’ considerably defers by the way the fuel system supplies the diesel the engine and ignites it.
Differential – The differential properly distributes the engine torque to wheels.
Digital Dashboard – The digital instrument panel features an LCD with fluorescent display and a touchscreen. You can choose the display of the dashboard from a variety of display options provided by the instrument panel of digital dashboard.
Displacement – It is the combined capacity for all cylinders of the engine added together while it completes its one cycle.
DOHC – DOHC stands for Double Over Head Camshaft. This newer-generation design uses two separate camshafts instead of the common camshaft.
DPF – It stands for Diesel Particulate Filter. It filters, stores and burns the soot particles which are emitted as a result of the combustion process of the diesel.
Driving Modes – The Driving Modes control the power output and performance parameters of transmission, suspension, steering, and brakes needed for particular driving conditions. It has different power maps for different driving conditions/styles. Driving modes also alter the throttle response, suspension stiffness, steering feel, and traction control.
DRL – It stands for Daytime Running Lights. They are the lights on the vehicle that remain ON while running during the daytime.
DTSi – DTSi stands for Digital Twin-Spark Ignition.
DTS-Si – DTS Si stands for ‘Digital Twin Spark-Swirl induction’ system.
Drive-By-Wire – Drive by Wire or simply ‘DbW’ is also known as the X-by-Wire. It is a semi-automatic, computer controlled technology mainly used in cars.
Drum Brake – This system is also known as the ‘Internal Expanding Shoe Type’ brake system. This type of brake got its name from the drum structure of cylindrical-shape.
Ecothrust – Ecothrust technology uses ‘Molycoat’ piston to reduce friction inside the engine. It, thereby, increases the power and helps to reduce fuel consumption with more efficient combustion as claimed by TVS.
Electrical System – The vehicle electrical system comprises of many components. that includes generators to electric wiring harness to connectors and many more. Over the period of time, the electrical system got updates, upgrades, and additions. This is mainly because the number of components operating on electric power increased and therefore, the power consumption increased substantially.
Engine Temperature Sensor – he Engine Temperature Sensor accurately measures the engine coolant temperature. Thereby, it gives an indication of the temperature of the engine.
EPB – The electric parking brake or the EPB is an advanced version of conventional parking brake or handbrake. Sometimes, people also refer to this system as ‘Electronic Parking Brake’. Technically this system is a sub-part of more advanced ‘Brake by Wire’ system.
EPP – EPP stands for Electronic Pedestrian Protection. This is a passive safety system. Engineers designed the EPP to lower the intensity of injuries that occur to a pedestrian after striking a running vehicle.
ESP – ESP stands for Electronic Stability Program while the ESC for Electronic Stability Control. The ultimate purpose of the ESP is to enhance vehicle stability. Thus, ESP improves stability by avoiding skidding.
EMS – EMS stands for Engine Management System. It consists of a wide range of electronic and electrical components such as sensors, relays, actuators and an Engine Control Unit. They work together to provide the Engine Management System with vital data parameters. These are essential for governing various engine functions effectively.
Engine Capacity – The Engine’s Capacity is its volume that is measured in “cc” or Cubic Centimeters or simply cm³ which is its metric unit. It is the unit of measuring the volume of a cube having size 1cm X 1cm X 1cm. CC is also known as ‘Engine Displacement’. It means the displacement of the piston inside the cylinder from Top Dead Centre (TDC) to the Bottom Dead Centre (BDC) in the engine’s one complete cycle.
Engine Design & Classification – An automotive engine which produces power also runs on its own power. Overall, the manufacturers classify the engines according to their varied designs, constructions, and applications. Generally, automotive applications have following sub-categories, by which; different engine design vary from one another.
Engine Lubrication System – Thus, lubrication is a process that separates the moving parts by supplying a flow of a lubricating substance between them. The lubricant could be liquid, gas or solid. However, engine lubrication system mainly uses liquid lubricants.
Engine Oil – Engine oil is categorized into three sub categories – Mono-grande, Multi-grade, and Synthetic. Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) has developed numerical coding system to grade the engine oils according to their viscosity. SAE viscosity index includes the following numbers: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50 and 60. As a thumb rule, lower the number means lower viscosity and vis-a-vis.
Engine Sensors – A modern car’s Engine Management System consists of a wide range of electronic and electrical components. It comprises engine sensors, relays, and actuators that work together. They provide the car’s Engine Control Unit with vital data parameters essential to govern various engine functions effectively. Generally speaking, Engine sensors are the electro-mechanical devices which monitor various engine parameters.
Engine Torque – Torque, in simple terms, is ‘Twisting or Turning Force’. It is the tendency of a force to rotate an object about an axis. In automotive terms, it is the measure of rotational effort applied on engine crankshaft by the piston.
Engine Volume – The Engine Volume is also known as the Engine’s Capacity or ‘Engine Displacement’. It is measured in Liters corresponding to Cubic Centimeters. It is the displacement of the piston inside the cylinder from Top Dead Centre (TDC) to the Bottom Dead Centre (BDC) in the engine’s one complete cycle.
EPAS – EPAS stands for Electric Power Assisted Steering. Electric Power Steering (EPS) is the another name for EPAS. In almost all modern vehicles, Electric Power Steering is in use. The main purpose of any type of power steering system is to attenuate the driver effort required to steer the vehicle i.e. the torque applied on the steering wheel and it uses electric motor for the same purpose.
Emergncy Signal System – ESS stands for Emergency Signal System which is an active safety system, designed and developed by Mazda Corporation, which is used to convey the message of emergency brake stop to the vehicle running just behind.
Ethanol Blending – Ethanol blending is a process of adding ethanol to petrol. Because of the growing environmental concerns, the use of ethanol as a motor fuel or as an additive is gaining rapid popularity. Properties of Ethanol closely resembles petrol. Moreover, you can obtain ethanol from various plants making it a renewable fuel.
ExhausTec – The term ExhausTec stands for Exhaust Torque Expansion Chamber used in the engine’s exhaust system. Exhaust Torque Expansion Chamber device fits in the exhaust system of Bajaj Pulsar. Thus, it is a resonator (or a tuned-box) which fits onto the header pipe of the exhaust. According to Bajaj Auto, this technology improves ‘scavenging‘ which is the process of pushing the exhaust gases out of the cylinder.
Exhaust System – The engine exhaust system is one of the important vehicle systems as it deals with vehicle emission. The exhaust system collects the exhaust gases from the engine cylinders. It guides them through the central exhaust passage and releases them into the atmosphere with minimum power loss, noise, vibrations, and transfer of heat to the car’s body.
EV – EV stands for Electric Vehicle. The electric vehicle is a vehicle that runs on electricity alone. Such a vehicle does not contain an internal combustion engine like the other conventional vehicles. Instead, it employs an electric motor to run the wheels. These vehicles are becoming very popular nowadays. They are considered to be a promising solution for the future transportation. The most common example is Tesla.
FCEV – FCEV stands for Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) also known as Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) or Zero Emission vehicle. It is a type of electric vehicle that employs ‘fuel cell technology’ to generate the electricity required to run the vehicle. In these vehicles, the chemical energy of the fuel is converted directly into electric energy. The working principle of a ‘fuel cell’ electric vehicle is different compared to that of a ‘plug-in’ electric vehicle because the FCEV generates the electricity required to run this vehicle on the vehicle itself.
Final Drive – Final Drive is the last gearing used while transmitting the engine power to the wheels. It has two purposes. Firstly, it turns the power flow at the right angle from the propeller shaft to the rear axle. Secondly, it also provides a mechanical advantage (leverage) from the propeller shaft to the rear axle. The Final drive contains a pair of spiral-bevel gears comprising a pinion that connects to the propeller shaft and a ring gear that connects to a flange on the differential case.
Front Engine Layout – The engine layout is nothing but the placement of engine in a vehicle. An engine finds its place at different locations in a vehicle depending upon the vehicle’s design, application and the space available. Most of the vehicles’ engine sits at the front because of the effective cooling it offers to run it efficiently. The front engine layout generally places the engine ahead of the front axle line. It also keeps the driven wheels at the front of the vehicle.
FTIS – FTIS stands for Fully Transistorised Ignition System is implemented by Hero MotoCorp (http://www.heromotocorp.com) in its Hero Glamor bike. The ‘Transistorised Ignition’ system uses a transistor to switch off and switch on the charging current to the ignition coil at an appropriate time.
Fuel Feed System – The main purpose of the fuel feed system is to control the fuel supply to the engine. To supply the fuel from the fuel tank to the engine cylinders, manufacturers use the following methods in case of a petrol engine.
Fuel Injector – Basically, the purpose of a fuel injector is to spray the fuel in atomized or mist form so that it burns completely & uniformly. Fuel Injection Pump (FIP) supplies pressurized diesel fuel thru’ high-pressure lines to the inlet port on each injector.
FWD – FWD stands for Front wheel drive layout is an arrangement of engine and transmission in which the engine drives only the front wheels of the vehicle. These vehicles are also known as FWD vehicles. In addition, some people refer to these vehicles as 4X2 cars.
Fuel Economy – Fuel economy is one of the most sensitive issues and an important factor while buying an automobile; be it a motorcycle, a car or even a truck or bus. For most automotive buyers across the world, it affects the running expenses of the vehicle. In simple terms, fuel economy is the number of kilometers per liter or gallon worth of fuel.
GDi – GDi stands for Gasoline Direct Injection. All these are the types of fuel injection systems which the gasoline or petrol fuel engines mainly use. All these terms refer to the newer generation Petrol Injection systems.
Gearbox – A Gear Box is an assembly consisting of various gears, synchronizing sleeves and gear-shifting mechanism fitted inside a metal housing. The metal housing usually made of aluminium/iron casting accommodates all the gears in it. Gearbox is a part of the ‘transmission’ system as the gears play an important role in transmitting the engine power to the wheels.
Ground Clearance – Ground Clearance (also known as ride height) is one of the most basic but very important general dimensions of a vehicle. It is defined as the minimum distance between the lower end of the vehicle body (or chassis) and the road. In other words, it indicates the height of the lowermost part of the vehicle with respect to ground.
Hatchback – The hatchback is a vehicle type which has a characteristic separate opening or door that provides access to the cargo area or boot. This door is known as ‘hatch’. And thus, the manufacturers term this category of cars as a ‘hatchback’. Although it is different than a coupe.
Hill Descent Control – Hill Descent Control (commonly abbreviated as HDC) is a driver assistance system provided mainly on all-wheel-drive off-roading vehicles such as SUVs. This system comes into play when the vehicle is coasting down a steep slope.
HET – Honda developed HET which stands for Honda Eco Technology. Honda Eco-Technology improves combustion. It also optimizes the transmission and minimizes the friction which enhances engine power and fuel efficiency.
Honda Nomenclature – It is Honda’s naming system. Ever wondered what BRV, CRV, HRV & WRV really mean? Let’s find out in the Honda Nomenclature..!
Horse Power – The power, in simple terms, is ‘rate or speed of doing work’. The work is defined as a ‘force operating thru’ a distance‘. The automotive engines use the term ‘horse power‘ (hp) to measure its power. This term comes from the erstwhile practice of measuring the rate of work done by a horse which equals to 33,000 ft-lb of ‘work done’ per minute.
Hill Start Assist – Hill Start Assist is a driver assistance system. It comes into play when the vehicle standing on the slope has to drive off again.
Hybrid Synergy Drive – Japanese automotive brand, Toyota, revolutionized the way a hybrid car works. Toyota introduced a technology called Hybrid Synergy Drive which is a full hybrid technology; i.e with this technology, the car can cover a distance of 1.5 km – 16 km in various modes even without the engine running.
HVAC – he term HVAC stands for ‘Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning’. HVAC also provides the heating of air along with the car’s air conditioning system. The air is heated using the heat from the engine’s cooling system. Today, most cars employ the HVAC system
Hybrid Vehicle – A hybrid vehicle is a vehicle that uses two or more distinct power sources to run. Ordinarily, the vehicle which we use daily derives the power from only one source i.e. an IC engine which runs on Petrol or Diesel.
Hydraulic Power Steering – Power steering is necessary for most of the vehicles with increased demand for lighter control of the steering. Nowadays, Hydraulic power steering is a standard fitment in most vehicles. It provides lighter steering effort and easy maneuverability. Manufacturers employ power steering mainly to reduce the wheel turning efforts and to turn the sharp corners easily.
Glossary Of Automotive Terms or Terminology I to Q
I3S – The term i3s stands for Idle Stop-Start System. Hero MotoCorp developed this technology to improve the mileage of its bikes under the Indian Riding Conditions. This technology is developed by Hero MotoCorp and implemented in the Hero Splendor iSmart bike. This system automatically switches off the engine when not needed.
Ignition System – Manufacturers employ the ignition systems specifically in the spark-ignition (SI) engines. Its because they use the spark-plug to ignite the air-fuel mixture. It works on Petrol engines for igniting the air-fuel mixture. However, a diesel engine DOES NOT need an ignition system.
Ignition Timing – Ignition Timing is a process to deliver spark at correct time. It sets the pointer with respect to the position of the piston as well as the crankshaft’s velocity. Thus, it delivers the spark at the most accurate timing to burn the air-fuel mixture. The Ignition System provides a spark at the end of the compression stroke in the combustion chamber at an appropriate time. Hence, it is known as Ignition Timing.
Immobilizer – The engine immobilizer is an anti-theft system built in the engine ECU. It prevents the engine from starting without using vehicle’s authorized key. This system uses a special digitally coded key or a Smart Key fob. This key contains a transponder chip. It stores the electronic security code or simply the vehicle’s password. The ECU does NOT activate the fuel system and the ignition circuit if the code in the key & that stored in the immobilizer does not match.
Independent Suspension – Due to a number of disadvantages of the beam or rigid axle front suspension, the manufacturers use an improvised version i.e. independent front suspension for passenger cars. However, earlier generation vehicles used rigid axle front suspension because of its simple design. It is also cheaper to manufacture and maintain.
Inline Engine – InLine Engine is a type of engine design that is very basic and conventional. In this type of engine construction, the cylinders are placed in a straight line as shown in the diagram. As all the cylinders are in a straight line, manufacturers sometimes refer to this engine as a ‘Straight Engine’.
Intake Manifold – The intake system is one of the most important engine systems. It deals with vehicle performance such as power and torque. The multiple combustion chambers must produce equal combustion pressure for the smooth operation of a multi-cylinder engine. Inlet/intake manifold consists of a cast iron or aluminum tube. Some modern manifolds are even powder coated or chrome plated. The carburetor is centrally mounted on the intake manifold. It carries the fresh charge from carburetor to intake valve ports.
Kerb Weight – Kerb weight is one of the most basic but an important specification of any vehicle, be it a two-wheeler or a four-wheeler. In simple terms, it is nothing but the weight of the vehicle in running condition. The American manufacturers use the term ‘Curb Weight’ for the purpose.
Keyless Entry – Keyless Entry or Passive Entry is a terminology commonly used in an automotive technology, which locks and unlocks a vehicle without using a conventional key and/or pressing the buttons on the Remote / Smart Key.
Lambda Sensor – Technically, oxygen is very important for an engine. It determines the proper engine performance. So, to achieve the correct air-fuel ratio manufactures employ oxygen sensors in the exhaust systems. Besides, the exhaust gas oxygen sensor is also known as the ‘lambda sensor’.
LaneWatch – Honda Lanewatch technology assists during a lane change and it also enhances visibility. The increase in visibility means more safety. The additional visibility also enables easy overtaking and keeps you more vigilant across all lanes.
LED Headlamp – LED Headlamp technology is the most modern technology used for the headlamps of the car. LED stands for Light Emitting Diode. It has several technological advantages over its rivals i.e. halogen lamps and xenon headlamps. So, these headlamps are becoming very popular in the passenger vehicle segment.
LDWS – Lane Departure Warning is a driver assistance system or an active safety system. It alerts the driver if the vehicle tends to depart the lane unintentionally. To do so, this system keeps track of the lane markings on the road.
Liquid-cooled – It is a type of engine cooling systems. When an IC engine is cooled by either liquid or water; it is known as liquid or water cooled engine. Most modern high-end bikes, besides cars and other commercial vehicles alike; use the liquid/water cooled engine. A liquid cooled engine is very similar to the water cooled engine; albeit a minor difference.
Limousine – Limousine refers to a highly luxurious sedan vehicle. It has an extended or longer than normal wheelbase which makes it stand out at an event. However, its most commonly used word is sometimes the ‘Limo’. Technically a limousine is a vehicle in which driver compartment and the passenger cabin are separated from each other.
LSD – The manufacturers offer the differential mechanism for better handling of the vehicle. However, it doesn’t offer high mechanical efficiency because of its ability of slippage. At times, a high amount of friction is also necessary. So, the engineers developed the limited slip differential or LSD.
M2V – It stands for Motorcycle-To-Vehicle communication system. This is a type of vehicle-to-vehicle communication system. The vehicle and motorcycle exchange information with each other. This information includes the type of vehicle, speed, position, and direction of travel. A vehicle can transmit this data up to ten times per second to the nearby environment.
MBUX – It syands for Mercedes-Benz User Experience (MBUX) is a whole new type user experience. The company recently unveiled all new level of interaction in its cars. It is a new kind of infotainment system that learns. It incorporates Artificial Intelligence which enables immense new possibilities.
MCi-5 – It stands for Micro Chip ignited-5 Curve (MCi-5) engine. MCi-5 Engine features in Mahindra Centuro & Pantero bikes. This is basically an ECU (Electronic Control Unit) controlled engine supported by the sensors. The ECU provides 5 different ignition curves or ignition timing angle (timing advance options) for the engine.
Mechanical Efficiency – The ‘Mechanical Efficiency’ is the measured (theoretical) efficiency of the engine compared to its actual (rated) efficiency. However, the engine cannot deliver 100 percent output that it produces. This is because of various factors such as thermal losses to the cooling and exhaust systems, the operation of valves and bearings, and wear and tear of the parts etc.
Mid Engine Layout – In the Mid Engine layout, an engine sits in the middle of a vehicle. In most of the vehicles, the engine sits at the front because it offers effective cooling to run it efficiently. However, due to some design constraints, engineers use the Mid-engine layout. This layout places the engine in the middle of the vehicle. However, it is generally between the front and rear axles.
Mercedes Nomenclature – It is the naming system of Mercedes Benz. Currently, Mercedes-Benz uses combinations starting with alphabet/s followed by a 2 / 3 digit number.
Mono-cross – Originally, Yamaha developed the monoshock suspension to improve the performance of its bikes in motocross competition. Some manufacturers also use the term “flying suspension” for monoshock suspension. It provides a great deal of stability in the jumps and landings of the bike.
Mono-shock – Originally, Yamaha developed the monoshock suspension to improve the performance of its bikes in motocross competition. Some manufacturers also use the term “flying suspension” for monoshock suspension. It provides a great deal of stability in the jumps and landings of the bike.
Moped – It is a small, two-wheeled automotive bicycle-vehicle with pedals. Swedish journalist Harald Nielsen first made up the word ‘moped in 1952. It is a combination of the Swedish words “motor” and “pedaler”. It employs a smaller capacity automotive engine to run itself. Generally, most mopeds in the world install a small petrol engine for this purpose.
MPFi – MPFi or MPi stands for Multi-Point Fuel injection.This is the type of fuel injection system which the gasoline or petrol fuel engines mainly use. This term refers to the newer generation Petrol Injection systems.
MPV – The term MPV stands for Multi-Purpose Vehicle (MPV). This vehicle type is primarily designed to carry a number of passengers. People also refer to such a vehicle as ‘Minivan’ or ‘Multi Utility Vehicle (MUV)’. These vehicles became popular around the world. It is mainly because of the convenience they offer in terms of the carrying capacity of either people or cargo.
MSC – It stands for Motorcycle Stability Control (MSC). Bosch developed this technology exclusively for two-wheelers. This is a safety system which helps the rider to control the bike better in the critical maneuvers in all driving conditions.
MTC – It stands for Motorcycle Traction Control. In motorcycles, still, this safety system is in its early stage of development. However, the motorcycle traction control system is available only in high-end motorcycles. It is steadily becoming popular in low-end motorcycles. This is because it offers greater control and safety.
MUV – The term MPV stands for Multi-Purpose Vehicle (MPV). This vehicle type is primarily designed to carry a number of passengers. People also refer to such a vehicle as ‘Minivan’ or ‘Multi Utility Vehicle (MUV)’. These vehicles became popular around the world. It is mainly because of the convenience they offer in terms of the carrying capacity of either people or cargo.
Naturally Aspirated Engine – The term NA stands for the Naturally Aspirated engine. This term applies only to an internal combustion (IC) engine. In an IC engine, the intake of the air completely depends upon the atmospheric pressure. So, manufacturers term it as naturally aspirated or naturally breathing.
OHC – OHC stands for Over Head Camshaft. This valve arrangement configuration places the camshaft in the cylinder head above the pistons and combustion chamber. Such camshaft operates the valves or lifters directly.
Oil-cooled – In an oil-cooled engine, the engine oil is cooled by an oil cooler separately. This engine is basically an air-cooled engine with an external oil cooler. However, engine manufacturers term it as an oil-cooled engine to differentiate between the two.
Over Square Engine – Bore-Stroke Ratio is the ratio between the dimensions of the engine cylinder bore diameter to its piston stroke-length. The cylinder bore diameter divided by the stroke-length gives the Bore-to-Stroke ratio. The ‘Bore-stroke ratio’ is an important factor which determines engine’s power & torque characteristics.
Oxygen Sensor – To achieve the correct air-fuel ratio manufactures employ oxygen sensors in the exhaust systems. Besides, the exhaust gas oxygen sensor is also known as the ‘lambda sensor’. It is located before the catalytic converter in the exhaust pipe. The sensor generates a voltage with regards to the amount of oxygen in the exhaust gas. Thus, it provides real-time feedback on the mixture composition to the engine management system.
Parking Sensors – Parking sensors are the proximity sensors which assist the driver in detecting nearby objects while parking a car. Manufacturers typically install them on the bumpers of a car. Thus, this system is a type of driver assistance system.
Passive Safety – The passive safety systems are those systems which react to the abnormal event. It means that these systems activate during or after the accident takes place. Thus, the passive safety systems help to reduce or decrease the effect of the abnormal event like an accident.
Petrol – It is the combination of Greek words ‘Petra’ for rocks and ‘Elaion’ for oil. The term ‘Petra-oleum’ was used in 10th-century old English sources, which became ‘Petroleum’ and then later simply ‘Petrol’.
Petrol Engine – A Petrol engine works is also known as spark ignition engine that works on Otto Cycle. Otto Cycle was named after German engineer Nikolaus Otto who invented, developed and patented first Four-Stroke petrol engine.
Glossary Of Automotive Terms or Terminology R to Z
Rack & Pinion Steering – The Rack and Pinion is a type of steering mechanism with a pair of gears which convert the rotary motion into the linear motion. This system consists of a circular gear called pinion engages with the teeth on the linear gear shaft called the rack. The rotary motion applied to the pinion causes it to turn while it moves rack sideways.
Rear Engine Layout – In the rear engine layout, the engine sits at the rear of a vehicle. Most of the vehicles use front engine layout because of the effective cooling it offers to run it efficiently. However, due to some design constraints, sometimes engineers use the rear engine layout. This design, i.e. the rear engine layout, places the engine at the rear of the vehicle but behind the rear axle line while the driven wheels are also at the rear of the vehicle.
Recirculating Ball & Nut – The Recirculating Ball Nut is a steering mechanism that is generally found in the earlier generation cars. It is also used in some off-road vehicles and especially in trucks. Manufacturers employed the recalculating ball mechanism in the 1990s for its durability of the design and strength.
Regenerative Braking – The regenerative system recovers some of the waste energy and puts it to work again. The system captures and converts this waste energy into electricity. The electricity, thus regenerated, charges the battery of an electric or hybrid vehicle.
Rain Sensing Wipers – As the name suggests, rain-sensing wipers are the windscreen wipers which come into action automatically. They do so when they sense the water on the windscreen of the vehicle.
Riding Assist – It is Honda’s unique feature for its motorcycles. It is an all-electric concept motorcycle which continually assesses its position. Furthermore, it can also move the handle-bar. Thus, it makes sure that the motorcycle always stays in an upright position.
Riding Modes – The earlier generation motorcycles had single riding characteristic. With riding modes, you can ride and handle a modern motorcycle in multiple ways. For e.g. four riding modes will give you four motorcycles in one. Generally, the riding modes can be set by a button on the handlebar.
Rigid Front Suspension – Earlier generation vehicles used the rigid front axle suspension due to its simple design. This design uses two longitudinal leaf springs or a transverse spring. The spring assembly consists of a number of curved metal strips, stacked on each other and clamped together. The spring assembly attaches to the front axle by ‘U’ bolts.
Run Flat Tyres – Run Flat Tyres: As the name suggests, these are the tyres which are capable of running even when flat i.e. in the punctured condition. These tyres are so designed that they allow the vehicle to cover the certain distance at reduced speed without compromising much on the stability.
Rear Vehicle Monitoring – As the name suggests, the Rear Vehicle Monitoring system is an active safety system or a driver assistance system. Mazda Corporation developed it and employes on Mazda cars since the year 2008.
Ride By Wire – it refers to the absence of mechanical linkage between accelerator and throttle. Instead, various sensors and actuators (connected by wires) control the fuel-air supply going to the engine.
Roll Stability Control – Rear view mirror is a device that allows the driver to see rearward. It usually finds its place at the top of windscreen inside the cabin. This device is one of the most basic but essential safety devices in the vehicle. It provides assistance to the driver during overtaking, parking in reverse gear etc.
RVM – It stands for Rear View Mirror
Safety – Active Safety includes set of safety features which reduce the chances of an accident or collision in the first place. Some manufacturers also call it as the ‘Primary Safety System’. Manufacturers employ the active safety systems mainly to avoid the accident. These systems activate before the accident takes place so that they could possibly avoid the accident.
SBS – Sync Brake System stands for ‘Synchronised Braking’.
Scooter – A scooter is a small, two-wheeled vehicle. It utilizes an automotive engine to run. So, generally, the manufacturers install a petrol engine for this purpose. Earlier, they offered a Two-Stroke/Spark Ignition (SI) engine for scooters.
Seat belt – Seat Belt is a safety device installed in the car which protects the occupants by restricting their undesirable forward movement during the events of a collision. It is also known as ‘Safety belt’.
Sedan – Sedan refers to a popular vehicle body type or shape which usually characterizes the vehicles by their long wheelbase and spacious passenger cabin or compartment. This vehicle category is also known as ‘Saloon’ in the British vehicle terminology. The word ‘sedan’ may have been derived from the Italian language. In Italian, the word ‘sedia’ means a chair.
SEP – SEP Technology stands for Suzuki Eco Performance technology.
Sequential Turbocharger – Sequential Turbochargers are not identical in their function. They operate as a primary and secondary turbocharger. Sometimes, the manufacturers also refer to the second type as ‘Variable Turbochargers’.
Slipper clutch – The slipper clutch is a different type of clutch. It is mostly utilized in the race-track motorcycles. It helps to reduce the speed abruptly without losing traction of the rear wheel. This functionality is useful during emergency braking.
Smart Accelerator – BOSCH is building something that goes beyond the limits. It is an intuitive and ‘Smart Accelerator’ pedal. It provides the driver with feedback about the changing driving conditions.
Smart Key – Keyless Entry or Passive Entry is a terminology commonly used in an automotive technology, which locks and unlocks a vehicle without using a conventional key and/or pressing the buttons on the Remote / Smart Key. However, Keyless Entry DOES NOT mean that ‘there is no key’.
Smart Windshield – Samsung is taking a leap ahead into developing smartphone related safety features for bike riders. Samsung’s Italian arm, Samsung Italia, has conceptualized a windshield for motorcycles called the Samsung smart windshield. This windshield is designed by keeping riders safety as the first priority.
SOHC – It stands for Single OverHead Camshaft
Spark Plug – A spark plug is very important in a petrol engine when it comes to igniting the charge in the combustion chamber. As the name suggests, the spark plug creates a spark that burns the air-fuel mixture. It consists of a center electrode, a ground electrode, an insulator, and a shell/body.
Spoiler – The rear spoiler is an aerodynamic device of the vehicle intended for reducing the air drag. It spoils or nullifies the effect of the air pressure passing over the vehicle body. If the spoiler is at the front of the vehicle, it is called an Air Dam which reduces the amount of air flowing under the vehicle.
Splitter – The function of the AirDam is to ‘spoil’ or nullify the effect of the undesired air movement across the vehicle when it is in motion. It not just only disrupt the existing airflow patterns, but also generate the down-force as the air passes around the vehicle.
Sports Bike – A Sports bike is a type of motorcycle which falls under the performance-bike segment. The manufacturers optimize the sports bikes for acceleration (pick-up), speed, braking, and cornering abilities.
Square Engine – An engine is called a ‘Square Engine’ when its cylinder bore diameter & stroke-length are almost equal which forms a geometrical figure of a perfect ‘square’. The bore-stroke ratio is almost 1:1 in Square engine design.
Steering System – A proper steering system mechanism is necessary to effectively control the vehicle with safety during its entire speed range without much effort. It should also be able to tackle wide variations of road surfaces and bumps and bounces to the vehicle.
Sunroof – Sunroof is a part of the vehicle roof that allows the light and/or air to enter the passenger compartment of the vehicle. It is either fixed or movable. The basic intention behind the use of the sun-roof is to enhance the passenger’s ride experience by the use of ambient light and fresh air.
SUV – SUV is an acronym for Sports Utility Vehicle. It is also known as ‘Suburban Utility Vehicle’. There was an idea behind the invention of this vehicle type. That was to combine the towing capacity of a pickup truck, the comfort of the passenger car and space of a minivan.
Sync Brake System – TVS introduced Sync Brake System (SBS) Technology in its Jupiter & Wego scooters. Sync Brake System stands for ‘Synchronised Braking’.
Telescopic Fork – Conventional motorcycle front suspension mainly consists of a telescopic fork and damper/shock-absorber. It is a type of suspension design which is common for most bikes. The telescopic fork operates hydraulically. It has fork tubes and sliders which contain the springs and dampers. Telescopic forks sometimes have gaiters to protect the tubes from abrasion and corrosion.
TCS – It stands for Traction Control System.
Tire – Tyre (or tire) is a circular and ring like part of a vehicle which comes in contact with ground. Tyres are fitted on rims and are filled with compressed air. Since their invention, natural rubber is the most widely used material in manufacturing of tyres. However, modern tyres also employ materials like synthetic rubber, fabric, steel wires, carbon black and some more compounds.
Tourer Bike – A Tourer bike or Touring Bike is a type of cruiser bike – its distant sibling. It falls under the luxury/premium cruiser bike segment. They both have a similar riding position and comfort levels. Most of the Tourers in the world cost comparatively more than the cruisers because of the features they offer.
Touring Bike – A Tourer bike or Touring Bike is a type of cruiser bike – its distant sibling. It falls under the luxury/premium cruiser bike segment. They both have a similar riding position and comfort levels. Most of the Tourers in the world cost comparatively more than the cruisers because of the features they offer.
TPFC – The term TPFC stands for Transient Power Fuel Control system. This system uses a constant-choke carburetor. The most prominent feature of this type of carburetor is that it increases the engine speed without any jerks.
TPMS – It stands for Tyre Pressure Monitoring System or TPMS. It is an electronic system which monitors the pressure of air in the tyres of the vehicle. TPMS checks the tyre pressure continuously and informs the driver if tyres are underinflated or overinflated.
Transmission – A Gear Box is an assembly consisting of various gears, synchronizing sleeves and gear-shifting mechanism fitted inside a metal housing. The metal housing usually made of aluminium/iron casting accommodates all the gears in it. Gearbox is a part of the ‘transmission’ system as the gears play an important role in transmitting the engine power to the wheels.
Troubleshooting (Engine Overheating) – There are multiple reasons why your vehicle’s engine overheats or its temperature shoots up. In this article, we look at the common causes and solutions for engine overheating.
Traffic Sign Assist – Traffic sign Assist is a driver assistance system. It makes sure that every road sign is brought to the notice of the driver. At the heart of the working principle of this system lies a simple rule. It says – ‘the on-road vehicle safety for pedestrian as well as the vehicle improves tremendously if the driver obeys the traffic rules perfectly’.
Turbocharger – A turbocharger is a turbine-driven, forced induction, mechanical device. It compresses the incoming air and pumps it into the engine cylinder at high pressure. Thus, it increases the engine’s efficiency and power output by about 30% to 40% as compared to naturally aspirated engines.
Turning Circle Diameter – Turning circle radius gives an indication of the space required to turn a particular vehicle. Hence, the higher the value of turning circle radius, the higher is the space you need to turn the vehicle completely and vice versa. This parameter is closely related to the steering geometry and the suspension system of the vehicle under consideration.
Turning Circle Radius – Turning circle radius gives an indication of the space required to turn a particular vehicle. Hence, the higher the value of turning circle radius, the higher is the space you need to turn the vehicle completely and vice versa. This parameter is closely related to the steering geometry and the suspension system of the vehicle under consideration.
Tyre – Tyre (or tire) is a circular and ring like part of a vehicle which comes in contact with ground. Tyres are fitted on rims and are filled with compressed air. Since their invention, natural rubber is the most widely used material in manufacturing of tyres. However, modern tyres also employ materials like synthetic rubber, fabric, steel wires, carbon black and some more compounds.
Under Square Engine – An engine is called an ‘Under-square’ engine when it has a longer stroke. In this engine, the stroke-length is longer than the cylinder bore. Generally, ‘Under-Square’ design tends to produce comparatively higher torque. Hence, engineers also refer to it as ‘high-torque’ engine.
V2V – It stands for Vehicle to vehicle OR V2V Communication and is technological innovation. It allows two vehicles to ‘talk’ or ‘communicate’ with each other. It is also known as ‘V2X’. With the help of this technology, a vehicle can connect to the other nearby vehicles and supporting infrastructure.
Valve Timing – Valve timing is the opening and closing of engine valves at specified intervals. The engine’s camshaft opens and closes the valves at a specific interval. The timing of the opening & closing of valves is specified in degrees corresponding to the position of engine’s pistons. Engine valve timing is the most critical process of IC engines.
V Engine – The V engine is a newer generation compact engine design. This engine construction places the cylinders at an angle instead of in a straight line with each other. The angle between the cylinders varies from 60 to 90 degrees. The angle between the cylinders form ‘V’ shape.
VGT – Variable Geometry Turbocharger or VGT is a type of turbocharger. It is a mechanical device that increases the pressure of air by compressing it. Another name for the Variable-Geometry Turbocharger (VGT) is Variable Nozzle Turbines (VNT). VGT allows effective aspect ratio (A:R) for the turbocharger according to varying conditions. VGTs are usually designed to deliver refined performance.
Volumetric Efficiency – Volumetric Efficiency is one of the most important factors of an internal combustion engine’ performance parameters. It is the ratio of the volume of air/charge drawn into the cylinder/s during the suction stroke to the total displacement of all the cylinder/s at the atmospheric pressure. In simple words, it denotes the engine’s ability to carry out the work efficiently.
VVT – Variable Valve Timing system further optimizes the timing of opening and closing the valves for multiple engine speeds. The first-generation VVT design uses two-step variation which optimises the engine for two different engine speeds. This design enables two different set of timings which includes one for the ‘part-load’ condition i.e. upto 3500 rpm and other for the ‘full-load’ condition, i.e. above 3500 rpm.
Wastegate Turbocharger – Nowadays, vehicles with turbocharged engines feature the wastegate turbocharger. This technology helps to deliver optimum engine performance during peak operating conditions. In addition, the wastegate valve prevents the turbocharger from over-running. Particularly, it also avoids the engine from over-boost and prevents any mechanical failure.
Water-cooled – When an IC engine is cooled by either liquid or water; it is known as liquid or water cooled engine. Most modern high-end bikes, besides cars and other commercial vehicles alike; use the liquid/water cooled engine. A liquid cooled engine is very similar to the water cooled engine; albeit a minor difference.
Water Injection System – Bosch recently introduced Bosch Water Injection system for gasoline direct injection engines. Water boost or water injection system uses water to cool down the intake air in the gasoline direct injection system. The cool air brings down the internal temperature of the engine and helps to burn the fuel efficiently.
Wheelbase – Wheelbase is the center distance between the front and the rear axle of the vehicle. It is one of the important dimensions of the vehicle that is specified by the vehicle manufacturers. This term is applicable to bicycles, two-wheelers, four-wheelers, trucks etc. i.e. for every vehicle type.
Wiper – Windscreen wiper is a device that cleans water, snow or mud from the windscreen of vehicle. Thus, it ensures proper visibility of the road ahead. This system finds application on a large variety of locomotives from vehicles, railways to aero-planes. Generally, the term ‘windscreen wiper’ refers to the wipers installed on the front windshield of a vehicle. However, nowadays, rear wipers are also getting popular.
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