Injector cross-section diagram

Injector: How A Fuel Injector Works? Design And Working Principle

The purpose of an Injector:

Basically, the purpose of an injector is to spray the fuel in atomized or mist form so that it burns completely & uniformly. Fuel Injection Pump (FIP) supplies pressurized diesel fuel thru’ high-pressure lines to the inlet port on each injector. However, the conventional or first generation injectors open with hydro-mechanical pressure. Inside the conventional injector, a spring holds the needle valve in ‘closed’ position until the pressure in the high-pressure lines reaches the specific value. Earlier generation DI & IDI diesel engines used conventional-injectors as seen in the diagram below.

Cross sectional view of conventional Diesel Injector diagram
Cross-sectional view of conventional Diesel Injector diagram

Working principle of a conventional injector:

The needle valve is controlled precisely by a pressure-sensitive spring. It lifts off its seat while spraying the diesel into the cylinder in highly atomized or mist form. The moment the pressure drops, the needle valve comes back to its seat which causes the injection to stop. The nozzle has extremely critical tolerances. The clearance between its moving parts is barely 0.002 mm or 2 microns.



Modern-day unit forces the diesel through a small opening in the nozzle of merely 0.25 mm² size. The injected fuel quantity can vary from 1 mm³ to 350 mm³. Conventional injectors open and close hydro-mechanically. They have average nozzle opening pressures ranging from 140 to 210 kg/cm2. A modern-day Bosch-unit sprays the diesel at the speed of up to 2,000 km/h. Bosch and Lucas are world's leading manufacturers of diesel nozzles.

Working principle a Petrol Injector:

Newer generation petrol-injectors are quite different in construction and size than the conventional diesel-injectors. The Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engine generates air-fuel mixture inside the combustion chamber. The opening of inlet valve allows only the fresh air to come in. While high pressure-injectors inject the petrol into the combustion chamber, it improves combustion chamber cooling. This enables higher engine efficiency due to higher compression which, in turn, increases fuel efficiency and torque.

Petrol GDI-Injector (Photo courtesy: Bosch)
Petrol GDI-Injector (Photo courtesy: Bosch)

A high-pressure pump feeds the fuel to high-pressure fuel-rail (aka common rail). Besides, the Bosch HDEV5 High-pressure solenoid-injector has a nominal system pressure of up to 20 MPa and a Droplet size / SMD (Sauter Mean Diameter) of only 15 μm. The injectors are fitted onto the fuel-rail / common rail. Moreover, they meter and atomize the fuel at high pressure and extremely rapidly. In addition, the injectors provide an optimum mixture and spray petrol into the combustion chamber.

For more information, read about GDI.

What is a Unit Injector?

Furthermore, fuel injection systems on the CRDi diesel engines use ‘Unit-Injector’ or the ‘Pump/Injector’. It merges the functions of an injector-nozzle and the injection pump into a single unit. This design consists of an individual pump assigned to each cylinder rather than a common pump used for all cylinders in earlier generation models.

Unit-Injector (Picture Courtesy: Bosch)
Unit-Injector (Picture Courtesy: Bosch)

In this system, the pump and nozzle are merged into a single compact assembly which fits directly on the cylinder head. This design eliminates the need for high-pressure fuel pipes. The integral ducts machined directly into the cylinder head supply the diesel. Thus, it helps to eliminate the potential failures of fuel pipes leakages.

Functioning of Unit Injector:

While functioning, an overhead camshaft operates a low-pressure fuel delivery pump. Subsequently, it supplies diesel to the fuel ducts in the cylinder head and into the inlet port of all injectors. To drive the plunger pump inside the injector, it uses a shared camshaft. This design can deliver higher injection pressure of up to 2,200 bar and accurate injection timing as well. Also, it precisely controls the amount of fuel injected. In addition, there is a solenoid valve which operates as the on-off switch to supply the fuel to the injector.

Pump Deuce-Injector (photo: VW)
Pump Deuce-Injector (Photo: VW)

Piezoelectric Injector:

The most advanced type of injectors is, undoubtedly, the ‘Piezoelectric-Injectors’. They not only provide increased precision for the latest generation of CRDi engines but also create fuel pressures up to 3,000 bar or 44,000 psi. Besides, these modern-day fuel-injectors work on ‘Piezo’ principle. The word ‘Piezo’ comes from the Greek word ‘piezein’  which means to squeeze or press.

Piezo Injector (Photo courtesy: Denso)
Piezo Injector (Photo courtesy: Denso)

A Piezo actuator consists of hundreds of ceramic wafers which are stacked one above the other in the injector. When electrically charged, Piezo crystals can change their structure in just a few thousandths of a second by expanding slightly. This expansion of the stack results in its linear movement. It is then transmitted directly to the injector needle without any mechanical linkage between them. As a result, the injectors open/close within a few milliseconds (thousandth of a second). Consequently, it can inject a very small amount of fuel, weighing less than one-thousandth of a gram and also distribute it finely.

The Piezoelectric-Injectors have:

1. Very high speed of operation
2. Extremely rapid response time
3. Repeatability of the movement of the valve
4. Precise apportioning of the injected fuel
5. Greater frequency - up to seven injections per combustion cycle

The Piezo-Injectors:

1. Optimize combustion of the air-fuel mixture.
2. Lower fuel consumption.
3. Reduce pollutant, lower emissions.

Watch video of working of fuel-injector here:

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